Kinesio Tape is a brand of elastic therapeutic tape that is supposed to alleviate pain and improve range of motion. It’s often applied to body parts where injury and pain often occurs, such as shoulders, knees, ankles, wrists and forearms, and lower back.
With its gaudy colors that resemble the characters in the movie “Tron,” it’s similar to most athletic tapes that mimic the stretchiness of your skin. It’s also water resistant so that you could have it on your skin for three to four days even with frequent showers.
Kinesio Tape is similar to other brands of athletic tape, like KT tape and Rocktape, but their differences are minor.
For example, ultrarunner Josh Spector tried both Kinesio Tex Gold Tape and KT Tape for his achilles tendon pain, The significant difference he noticed is that the KT Tape already had pre-cut strips with rounded edges, which he had to cut out the Kinesio Tape.
While Spector said that KT Tape offers a “nice convenience,” it doesn’t stick to his skin as well as Kinesio Tape. It also left a residue on his skin that Kinesio Tape does not.
Although many physical therapists, chiropractors, and athletic trainers use it for their patients, does scientific evidence support the claims that Kinesio Tape and similar brands of tape make?
(NOTE: While Kinesio Tape is used extensively in this article, some of the research discussed here either used Kinesio Tape or KT (kinesiology) tape. Therefore, what research says about one type of tape may likely be applied to another.)
What does the scientific evidence say about Kinesio Tape?
Despite the positive effects that some athletes and patients feel about using Kinesio Tape, the scientific evidence in the last decade found little or no clinically significant benefits that it’s better than placebo, regular athletic tape, or other types of non-invasive treatments.
Since 2012, there has been at least 15 systematic reviews that examined various effects of Kinesio Tape and KT Tape for different types of pain at different body parts.
Early taping research
Research in Kinesio tape and other tapes in the early 2010s didn’t have much trials to work with. Researchers usually lump different body parts together to get a general “feel” to see if Kinesio taping works or not.
One of these early systematic reviews examined the effects of Kinesio Tape with musculoskeletal pain based on six randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) for the shoulder, lower back, knee, and Achilles tendon.
They found “insufficient evidence for or against the use of [Kinesio Tape] to improve pain, function, performance, and time to return to play following musculoskeletal injury.”
The number of high-quality and consistent studies back then was limited, and the authors warrented “further research with higher levels of evidence, larger sample sizes, powered outcomes, and longer follow-up times to show the effect—or lack thereof—of [Kinesio Tape].”
They also said that there’s “almost no available evidence regarding the use of [Kinesio Tape] to improve return to play.”
Another study from Teesside University in the U.K. that was published a year later examined different effects of Kinesio Tape on various issues.
The authors reviewed eight qualified RCTs that include side effects, breast cancer-related lymphedema, shoulder impingement syndrome, neck pain, chronic low back pain, plantar fasciitis, knee pain, and stroke-related muscle spasticity.
Nearly all of these studies found that Kinesio Tape is not significantly better than sham taping or exercise-only intervention.
The exception is with plantar fasciitis, where short-term taping with physical therapy “produced statistically greater improvements in pain and fascia thickness” compared to physical therapy alone. But no one really knows if the differences were clinically important.
In 2013, another systematic review was published based on 12 RCTs. Again, the authors found almost the same thing as the previous reviews.
“One of the primary roles of the health professional is to confirm, through evidence-based knowledge, the effectiveness of a treatment modality, not only due to its popularity,” the authors concluded.
More research, similar stories
The pattern of refuting the efficacy of Kinesio Tape repeats itself with further studies and more reviews — two in 2014 and two in 2015—that showed similar results and conclusions.
A 2014 Brazilian study, led by Dr. Leonardo Costa from the Universidade Cidade de São Paulo, found that the quality of evidence of the included studies range from low to very low quality, despite the slight favortism toward Kinesio Tape groups.
They wrote, “The trials typically showed no significant difference in outcomes between the groups, or a trivial effect in favour of [Kinesio Tape] (i.e., small enough to not be considered clinically worthwhile).”
Costa et al. speculated that the popularity of Kinesio Tape among physiotherapists and athletes is because of the heavy marketing campaigns, such as the one used in the London 2012 Olympic Games, not because of scientific evidence.
“Policymakers and clinicians should carefully consider the costs and the effectiveness of this intervention when deciding whether to use this intervention,” the authors suggested.
Adding more systematic reviews that were done in different countries could change the ball game.
A 2014 Singaporean study that focused on Kinesio Tape’s effects on various muscular pain and disability, based on 17 RCTs, found similar results as previous reviews.
“Existing evidence does not establish a superiority of [Kinesio taping] in reducing disability when compared to either minimal or other forms of intervention,” the authors concluded.
But they mentioned that having some Kinesio taping is better than minimal treatment and “may be effective” when it’s used with typical physical therapy.
Another review in 2015 based on eight RCTs also found that Kinesio Tape is no better than non-elastic tape for neck pain and low back pain, even when the quality of the RCTs for low back pain are quite high.
Kinesio Tape and shoulder pain
By the late 2010s and early 2020s, researchers have enough Kinesio Tape and KT Tape trials to pool data not only for general muscular and joint pain, but also for more specific areas like the shoulder. The number of studies in these reviews have come a long way from the 2012 review with six trials.
In 2019, a team of researchers from Egypt and Vietnam compared Kinesio Tape as a stand-alone treatment with exercise with taping and other typical modalities for shoulder pain.
From a data pool of 26 trials, they found that while Kinesio Tape provided “significant improvement” in shoulder pain and disability when combined with exercise, it’s no better than fake taping and steroid treatments.
The highest decrease in shoulder disability was measured in internal rotation and flexion. They mentioned that shoulder disease and how long the tape on put on did not affect the results.
When compared to steroids, Kinesio Tape was only “significantly better” for shoulder extension.
Another systematic review and meta-analysis from early 2020 reviewed 14 trials for shoulder pain and disability, and the researchers also found “no signficant difference in pain intensity between kinesio taping and sham kinesio taping with moderate effect and small heterogeneity [differences in how the research was done, like type of subjects, measurement type].”
Kinesio Tape and knee pain
The evidence behind whether Kinesio taping or KT tape can alleviate pain for different kinds of knee pain is mixed.
A Chinese systematic review published in 2020 found that both taping and taping with physical therapy can improve knee range of motion and quadriceps strength among patients with knee osteoarthritis. But there was not much improvement in hamstrings strength. The researcher reviewed 11 trials with a total of 490 patients.
When both groups were compared, those who had physical therapy had better outcomes than those with taping alone.
They found that there’s “no strong evidence” that taping alone is enough to reduce the score on the WOMAC scale for knee osteoarthritis. In other words, the amount of pain reduction and quality of life improvement are not significant enough to warrant taping as a valid treatment.
Kinesio Tape and the ankle
A 2021 systematic review and meta-analysis from Brazil examined 84 qualified trials and 44 of them were used in the meta-analysis. The researchers also performed 58 meta-analyses out of these 44 trials, examining a mix of different ankle problems, such as chronic instability, Achilles tendinopathy, and ankle sprain, among healthy and injured people.
They found no evidence that Kinesio taping can be used as a prevention or treatment of ankle conditions among the young and old, healthy or injured.
Like previous research since 2012, it seems the increasing body of taping literature tell the same story: Kinesio Tape and other brands of taping are not that better than most intervention for most types of pain, disability, and flexibility improvement.
So why do many physiotherapists use Kinesio Tape and other tapes despite the lack of good scientific evidence?
“My best guess is that because physiotherapists are still not used to check the evidence before investing their time and money into a course. If they decided to play with the word ‘Kinesio Tape’ on PubMed, they would never invest a single cent on these courses,” Dr. Costa said in an online interview with Massage & Fitness Magazine.
“This is very problematic as a profession as we should not make this kind of mistake. Kinesio Tape is only [one] of many examples of treatments that come and go and just a few people will benefit from this.”
How does Kinesio Tape work?
Lim and Tay stated in their review that the underlying mechanism of Kinesio Tape is poorly understood. They said that different nerve stimuli in beneath the skin may “inhibit the transmission of nociceptive signals” to the spinal.
While this is common explanation to why Kinesio Tape may reduce pain, they said that the original intentions was the avoid sensory stimuli when the tape is put on. “To this end, it remains unclear to what extent the gate control theory is involved in the efficacy of [Kinesio Tape],” Lim and Tay wrote.
Another popular idea of how Kinesio Tape works is that it lifts the skin to alleviate pressure to reduce pain and swelling from an injury.
This may sound reasonable, but it doesn’t follow basic human physiology and physics.
“[Kinesio Tape] rests on the surface of the skin. As an exercise physiologist, I find it hard to understand how [it} can have an effect on muscle fibres that lie beneath the fascia of the muscle,” Dr. John Brewer said who is the Director of Sport at the University of Bedfordshire in the U.K.. “The forces involved in physical activity are significant, and the likelihood of tape on the surface of the muscle having any genuine impact on the stability of the muscles is, therefore, limited.
“Research evidence on the claims is less than conclusive with no evidence to support the claimed increase in blood flow or lymphatic system,” Brewer added. “Some claims suggest that [Kinesio Tape] ‘lifts’ the surface of the skin; this cannot be possible unless there is a force in the opposite direction, such as pushing down on the skin, so this is highly unlikely.”
“The whole biological rationale of the use of [Kinesio Tape] does not make a lot of sense, in my opinion,” Costa said. “Their theory is that lifting the skin will reduce the pressure from pain nociceptors and this could reduce pain. They also claim that circulation under the skin would improve.
Costa said that no one has tested if the tape actually increase the space between the dermis and epidermis as Kinesio Tape founder Dr. Kenzo Kase (a chiropractor) and propoents of taping suggested.
“With regards to alleviating pain from a psychological point of view: all trials demonstrated quite clearly that Kinesio Tape’s effects are due to non-specific effects, including psychological effects,” Costa said.
“I think the proposed benefits of [Kinesio Tape] are difficult to measure, particularly the physiologically ones,” Dr. Ahmad M. Mostafavifar said, who is the lead author of the first 2012 systematic review. “I think psychological studies could be done.
“Overall, if athletes perceive a benefit and their performance improves because of this perception then there may be a benefit despite no scientific evidence. Some athletes in major colleges and professionally can absorb the costs where high schoolers and others may not.”
Does it matter how do you apply Kinesio Tape?
Current scientific evidence indicates that there is almost no difference between different types of taping method for pain relief.
More research toward the end of the 2010s, including three systematic reviews that examined different applications of Kinesio Tape, found similar results:
- A Brazilian systematic review found “no evidence to support the use of KT in clinical practice for patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain,” based on 11 RCTs with a total of more than 700 patients; (10)
- For pain and muscle strength, a systematic review of six Japanese studies found “limited, inconclusive evidence about the effectiveness of KT on muscle strength and functional performance;” (11)
- A Spanish systematic review of six RCTs on Kinseio Taping for knee osteoarthritis and low back pain alone found that such taping is not better than sham taping. (12)
And no matter what tape you use or how you tape a body part—such as the knee for anterior knee pain—all methods seem to work nearly equally well.
Should you toss away Kinesio Tape?
Not necessarily, and neither are what some researchers and clinicians saying. Most of the RCTs examined show that Kinesio Tape is just as effective — not superior — as regular taping, exercise, and other interventions that manual therapists might use.
Lim and Tay stated that Kinesio Tape could be used as an adjunct to conventional care for physiotherapists.
Even if wearing Kinesio Tape or any other gaudy-colored tape is nothing more than a placebo effect, it could influence the outcome of the athletes’ perception of their performance and pain and their actual performance. In fact, a 2018 study found that color—red, blue, beige—did not affect the participants’ athletic performance in their legs.
But even if there are some benefits to the placebo effects, there are some precautions that athletes, patients, and healthcare professions must consider. Physiotherapist and triathlete Paul Westwood warned that Kinesio Tape could “promotes the belief that their body is not good enough and they need an extrinsic factor (tape) to allow it to function.” He mentioned that the placebo effect might eventually wear off if the athlete relies too much on it.
Manual therapists who find taping — Kinesio Tape or regular taping — useful in their practice should continue to use it, but they should be honest and transparent about how and why it works (or not work) for their patients.
Of course, taping is just one out of many “tools” in the metaphorical toolbox of manual therapists and should not be the panacea for pain relief.
Editor’s note: This story was original published on June 2016 and has gone through several updates because of new research and insights about Kinesio Taping and taping in general.
1. Jacobs D, Silvernail, J. Therapist as operator or interactor? Moving beyond the technique. The Journal of Manual and Manipulative Therapy. 2011 May; 19(2): 120–121.
2. Novella S. Placebo by Conditioning. Science-Based Medicine. July 23, 2015.